The reason behind such resistance is the perception that a pharmacogenomics strategy will lead to a significant loss of revenue resulting from the fragmentation of the drug market. 2012). PPT – What is bioinformatics? Pharmacogenomics 11:501–505, Tsaioun K, Bottlaender M, Mabondzo A, Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation (2009) ADDME–avoiding drug development mistakes early: central nervous system drug discovery perspective. CMAJ 180:277–278, Crews KR, Hicks JK, Pui CH, Relling MV, Evans WE (2012) Pharmacogenomics and individualized medicine: translating science into practice. This would reduce the speculation in drug prescriptions and thus increase the confidence of both physician and patient, and modify the predominating approaches to drug discovery and development, diagnostics, therapies and disease prevention strategies (Prows and Prows 2004; Zemlo 2004). From a business point of view, if the pharmaceutical company could benefit from something like orphan drug status for its product, this would help encourage stratification of populations on the basis of pharmacogenomics, since the reduction in the size of a population to be treated could be compensated by preference for the drug. These précised drugs can be evaluated in short and simplified clinical trials and will show little or no adverse effects (Zemlo 2004). Curr Drug Metab 12:460–486, Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN (1998) Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 27:199–207, Papanikolaw J (1999) Bioinformatics emerges as key technology for developing new drugs. BIOINFORMATICS INSTITUTE OF INDIA Definition of Bioinformatics General Definition: A computational approach ,Solves the biological problem. 2012). SNPs occur every 100–300 bases along the three-billion-base human genome; therefore, millions of SNPs must be identified and analyzed to determine their involvement (if any) in drug response (Laing et al. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361:413–423, Chen YP, Chen F (2008) Identifying targets for drug discovery using bioinformatics. It is very difficult to predict gene variations that affect drug response. Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics Curr Protein Pept Sci 13:205–210, Gilbert J, Henske P, Singh A (2003) Rebuilding Big Pharma’s Business Model. This is an area where the human genome information is expected to play a master role (Yamanishi et al. This is the only way that pharmaceutical companies can be encouraged to give up the blockbuster dogma (Nelson et al. 2009). http://bit.ly/30k54E5, Long Definition The study of the application of, Short Definition The management, analysis, and. Nevertheless, the increased attention and the documented potential and promise of pharmacogenomics-based drug development strategies, there has been continuous resistance to this approach on the part of pharmaceutical companies (Bernard 2003; Liou et al. INTRODUCTION TO BIOINFORMATICS Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Bharat Institute of Technology, By-Pass road, Paratapur, MeerutSUBMITTED TO- MS. NEHA GULATI SUBMITTED BY – PROMILA SHARANASISTANT PROF. PHARMACEUTICS M.PHARMA 1 ST SEM 2. 2011). Top Canada Pharmacy Universities-REVIEWS How to Select? Contents of the powerpoint on Introduction to Bioinformatics include: Introduction Data bases DNA sequence data Biological data Molecular biology DNA and RNA Bioinformatics software Personalized medicine Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Molecular modelling Drug docking Applications Conclusion References. http://www.allp.com/drug_dev.htm, Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M (2008) DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. JAMA 279:1200–1205, Liang BA, Mackey T (2011) Direct-to-consumer advertising with interactive internet media: global regulation and public health issues. Drug Inspector, GPAT, NIPER, Bpharm, Mpharm study material, Contents of the powerpoint on Introduction to Bioinformatics include: Introduction Data bases DNA sequence data Biological data Molecular biology DNA and RNA Bioinformatics software Personalized medicine Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Molecular modelling Drug docking Applications Conclusion References, Download the powerpoint by liking us on Facebook, [button url=”https://pharmawiki.in/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Introduction-to-Bioinformatics.pptx” style=”glass” background=”#1782f9″ color=”#ffffff” size=”4″ center=”yes” icon=”icon: download”]Download PPT here[/button], You can also download the PDF onIntroduction to Bioinformatics by clicking here [button url=”https://pharmawiki.in/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Introduction-to-Bioinformatics-rasterized.pdf” style=”glass” background=”#1782f9″ color=”#ffffff” size=”4″ center=”yes” icon=”icon: download”]Download PDF here[/button]. Includes structural and functional genomics. Doctors also need to execute an extra diagnostic step to determine which drug is best suited to each patient. Development and application of genetic mapping, Structural genomics-genetic and physical mapping, Functional genomics-analysis of gene function, Comparative genomics-comparison of genomes across. Nucleic Acids Res 40:D1128–D1136. Orphanet J Rare Dis 6:42, Song CM, Lim SJ, Tong JC (2009) Recent advances in computer-aided drug design. PubMed Google Scholar. The costs of drug discovery and development—generally include total costs from discovery to approval (Klein and Tabarrok 2003; Wierenga and Eaton 2004; Adams and Brantner 2010) though some studies have included the costs of failed drugs and the costs for commercialization (Gilbert et al. Protoplasma 248:799–804, Klein DB, Tabarrok A (2003) The drug discovery, development and approval process.

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