Based on the experimental results presented by Rahman et al. In a surfactant–water–oil system, IFT passes through a minimum and the solubilization parameter reaches a maximum at the optimum formulation condition. The minimum surface tension was 30.52 m N / m when 0.8 wt% mixture of N a N O 3: N H 4 2 S O 4 = 2:1(wt%) was added, at which the best emulsification of crude oil was observed. It characterizes interfaces between two immiscible liquids, frequently encountered, and has wide application in many industries (Alguacil et al. As discussed earlier, phase behavior and phase coexistence properties of fluids under confinement are different from those in the bulk system, especially in organic-rich shales. Eng. Richardson, Texas: SPE. 108 35 It is a function of pressure, temperature, and the composition of each phase. To make a clear picture of IFT importance and its effects on oil recovery, a dimensionless number is defined as the capillary number (Nca). If the deformation of the drop is dominantly caused by the Marangoni convection at the interface induced by the transfer of the surface active element sulfur, we cannot apply, in principle, the Laplace equation to the system and the unusual low interfacial tension value, obtained with the aid of the Laplace equation, is regarded as just an apparent one. In the du Noüy ring method, the IFT can be obtained as follows: where σ is the IFT in dynes per centimeter, gc is the gravitational constant (980 cm/s2), d is the ring diameter in cm, and δ is grams-force measured with analytic balance. From experimental studies, it was found that IFT gradually decreased with increasing concentration of natural alkaline solution (Figure 7-38). Schematic illustration of different steps in droplet growth during coalescence. The major components of wood ash are potassium carbonate “potash” and sodium carbonate “soda ash”. An automatic measuring system has been developed by combining a video-image analysis, an automatic recording system, and a computer for calculation of the IFT . The system examined contained David Lloydminster crude oil, sodium carbonate (a buffered alkali) and one of two synthetic surfactants with high salt tolerance (Neodol 25-3S or Triton X-100). Total oil production by chemical flooding projects in the United States. Owing to this fact that the prementioned product is proportional to the pressure drop; thereby, the injection pressure is limited to fracture pressure. Such a drop in IFT value will result in an increase oil recovery when water is considered to be flooded alternatively/simultaneously with CO2. (2006), the following conclusions are reached. Similar to the case of Fig. However, cost effective alkali might recover its popularity in the recovery scheme. 6 shows a comparison of the four methods for calculating interfacial tension. By varying the molecular properties of the surfactant and the polymer, we found a technically promising surfactant-polymer combination for potential EOR application. Paper 19. The Weinaug-Katz equation is modified as, where the oil mole fraction in the oil phase is defined as, The mole fraction of oil and gas in the as phase is. 0000007714 00000 n and Brulé, M.R. startxref The pseudocritical temperature of the mixture can be evaluated by calculating the mole fraction of each component present in the oil. Michael A. Steinerd, Jaeyub Chung, Bryan W. Boudouris, Nathan C. Schultheiss, and Elias I. Franses, 1943. Interfacial tension vs pH of natural alkaline solution at 22°C. A single test method (ASTM D971: Standard Test Method for Interfacial Tension of Oil against Water by the Ring Method) is applicable to the measurement of oil/water interfacial tensions. Crude oil/alkali systems showed a minimum interfacial tension (IFT) of 0.02 mN m−1 at an optimum alkali concentration of 0.2 mass%. 0000004493 00000 n The higher the concentration of the alkaline solution, the more the surface active agent reacts with organic acid in the crude oil and alkali in the aqueous phase. and Daubert, T.E. The greatest challenge of any novel recovery technique is to be able to produce under attractive economic and environmental conditions (Islam 1999; Khan et al. For methane-brine systems, Standing has indicated that the surface tension will increase according to Fig. Unfortunately, this work was for liquid hydrocarbons and did not extend into the gas-phase region. The core sample is then exposed to confining and pore pressure, and reservoir temperature is achieved through the application of a heating jacket. With the assumption that no oil vaporizes into the gas phase, the resulting equation is, where the gas formation volume factor (FVF), Bg, is defined as. Asheim proposed the following equations to calculate the parachors for the oil and gas phases. In an immiscible process, the IFT between CO2 and oil is not very close to zero. Different concentrated alkaline solutions were prepared for laboratory testing and the alkalinity of the solutions was measured with a pH meter. It was also observed that IFT decreased up to a certain limit with pH (Figure 7-39). Exposure to the alkalis, in solid or solution, can cause skin and eye irritation. Mercury can enter pores as small as 3 nm, however, there are shale samples with a significant amount of pores of less than 1 nm that cannot be invaded by mercury even at 60,000 psi injection pressure. On average, the burning of wood results in about 6–10% of ash. This results in interfacial tension that is somewhat lower than that measured manually. Ultimately, it results in the mobilization of trapped oil droplets within the porous media. Therefore, it is not performed at in situ reservoir conditions. The mercury saturation is calculated from a known injection and pore volumes of a sample. Figure 7-39. These are equivalent to the former units of dynes per centimeter (dyne/cm). The dynamic IFT behavior of reacting acidic oil-alkaline solutions has been studied for both an artificially acidified synthetic oil and a real crude oil at various concentrations with either a drop volume tensiometer or a spinning drop tensiometer [259, 260]. However, a wide range of experiments from different viewpoints may increase this appealing field application: The natural alkaline solution extracted from wood ash is highly alkaline and the alkalinity (pH value) of 6% wood ash solution is close to 0.5% synthetic sodium hydroxide and 0.75% synthetic sodium metasilicate solution. The mercury injection technique has been conventionally used to measure the capillary pressure of shale samples.
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